HISTORY OF THE U.S. MARINES AND UNDECLARED WAR...
[CRS Issue Brief for Congress]
Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798 - 1993
by Ellen C. Collier, Specialist in U.S. Foreign Policy,
Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division
Washington DC: Congressional Research Service -- Library of Congress --
October 7, 1993
This report lists 234 instances in which the United States has used its armed
forces abroad in situations of conflict or potential conflict or for other
than normal peacetime purposes. It brings up to date a 1989 list that was
compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide
a rough sketch survey of past U.S. military ventures abroad. A detailed
description and analysis are not undertaken here.
The instances differ greatly in number of forces, purpose, extent of
hostilities, and legal authorization. Five of the instances are declared wars:
the War of 1812, the Mexican War of 1846, the Spanish American War of 1898,
World War I declared in 1917, and World War II declared in 1941.
Some of the instances were extended military engagements that might be
considered undeclared wars. These include the Undeclared Naval War with France
from 1798 to 1800; the First Barbary War from 1801 to 1805; the Second Barbary
War of 1815; the Korean War of 1950-53; the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1973; and
the Persian Gulf War of 1991. In some cases, such as the Persian Gulf War
against Iraq, Congress authorized the military action although it did not
The majority of the instances listed were brief Marine or Navy actions prior
to World War II to protect U.S. citizens or promote U.S. interests. A number
were actions against pirates or bandits. Some were events, such as the
stationing of Marines at an Embassy or legation, which later were considered
normal peacetime practice. Covert actions, disaster relief, and routine
alliance stationing and training exercises are not included here, nor are the
Civil and Revolutionary Wars and the continual use of U.S. military units in
the exploration, settlement, and pacification of the West.
INSTANCES OF USE OF UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES
ABROAD, 1798-1993 (Note 1)
The following list indicates approximately 234 times that the United States
has utilized military forces abroad in situations of conflict or potential
conflict to protect U.S. citizens or promote U.S. interests. The list does not
include covert actions or numerous instances in which U.S. forces have been
stationed abroad since World War II in occupation forces or for participation
in mutual security organizations, base agreements, or routine military
assistance or training operations. Because of differing judgments over the
actions to be included, other lists may include more or fewer instances. (Note
The instances vary greatly in size of operation, legal authorization, and
significance. The number of troops involved range from a few sailors or
Marines landed to protect American lives and property to hundreds of thousands
in Vietnam and millions in World War II. Some actions were of short duration
and some lasted a number of years. In some instances a military officer acted
without authorization; some actions were conducted solely under the
President's powers as Chief Executive or Commander in Chief; other instances
were authorized by Congress in some fashion; five were declared wars. For most
of the instances listed, however, the status of the action under domestic or
international law has not been addressed. Thus inclusion in this list does not
connote either legality or significance.
1798-1800 -- Undeclared Naval War with France. This contest included land
actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic, city of Puerto Plata, where
marines captured a French privateer under the guns of the forts.
1801-05 -- Tripoli. The First Barbary War included the USS George Washington
and USS Philadelphia affairs and the Eaton expedition, during which a few
marines landed with United States Agent William Eaton to raise a force against
Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia. Tripoli declared
war but not the United States.
1806 -- Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt. Z. M. Pike, with a platoon of
troops, invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on
orders from Gen. James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without resistance at a
fort he constructed in present day Colorado, taken to Mexico, and later
released after seizure of his papers.
1806-10 -- Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from New Orleans against
Spanish and French privateers off the Mississippi Delta, chiefly under Capt.
John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.
1810 -- West Florida (Spanish territory). Gov. Claiborne of Louisiana, on
orders of the President, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of
Mississippi as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of
Louisiana. He was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River.
1812 -- Amelia Island and other - parts of east Florida, then under Spain.
Temporary possession was authorized by President Madison and by Congress, to
prevent occupation by any other power; but possession was obtained by Gen.
George Matthews in so irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by
1812-15 -- War of 1812. On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war
between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Among the issues leading to the war were British interception of neutral ships
and blockades of the United States during British hostilities with France.
1813 -- West Florida (Spanish territory). On authority given by Congress,
General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A small
Spanish garrison gave way. Thus U.S. advanced into disputed territory to the
Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.
1813-14 -- Marguesas Islands. U.S. forces built a fort on the island of
Nukahiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured from the
1814 -- Spanish Florida. Gen. Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the
British with whom the United States was at war.
1814-25 -- Caribbean. Engagements between pirates and American ships or
squadrons took place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba,
Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate attacks on
merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822 Commodore James
Biddle employed a squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs,
four schooners, and two gunboats in the West Indies.
1815 -- Algiers. The second Barbary War was declared by the opponents but not
by the United States. Congress authorized an expedition. A large fleet under
Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.
1815 -- Tripoli. After securing an agreement from Algiers, Decatur
demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured
indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.
1816 -- Spanish Florida. United States forces destroyed Nicholls Fort, called
also Negro Fort, which harbored raiders making forays into United States
1816-18 -- Spanish Florida - First Seminole War. The Seminole Indians, whose
area was a resort for escaped slaves and border ruffians, were attacked by
troops under Generals Jackson and Gaines and pursued into northern Florida.
Spanish posts were attacked and occupied, British citizens executed. In 1819
the Floridas were ceded to the United States.
1817 -- Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida). Under orders of
President Monroe, United States forces landed and expelled a group of
smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters.
1818 -- Oregon. The USS. Ontario dispatched from Washington, landed at the
Columbia River and in August took possession of Oregon territory. Britain had
conceded sovereignty but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area.
1820-23 -- Africa. Naval units raided the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819
act of Congress.
1822 -- Cuba. United States naval forces suppressing piracy landed on the
northwest coast of Cuba and burned a pirate station.
1823 -- Cuba. Brief landings in pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near
Escondido; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape
Cruz; and October 23 at Camrioca.
1824 -- Cuba. In October the USS Porpoise landed bluejackets near Matanzas in
pursuit of pirates. This was during the cruise authorized in 1822.
1824 -- Puerto Rico (Spanish territory). Commodore David Porter with a landing
party attacked the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted
American naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an
apology. Commodore Porter was later court-martialed for overstepping his
1825 -- Cuba. In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua
La Grande to capture pirates.
1827 -- Greece. In October and November landing parties hunted pirates on the
islands of Argenteire, Miconi, and Androse.
1831-32 -- Falkland Islands. Captain Duncan of the USS Lexington investigated
the capture of three American sealing vessels and sought to protect American
1832 -- Sumatra - February 6 to 9. A naval force landed and stormed a fort to
punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for plundering the American ship
1833 -- Argentina - October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at
Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the United States and other countries
during an insurrection.
1835-36 -- Peru - December 10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and August 31 to
December 7, 1836. Marines protected American interests in Callao and Lima
during an attempted revolution.
1836 -- Mexico. General Gaines occupied Nacogdoches (Tex.), disputed
territory, from July to December during the Texan war for independence, under
orders to cross the "imaginary boundary line" if an Indian outbreak
1838-39 -- Sumatra - December 24, 1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force
landed to punish natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for
depredations on American shipping.
1840 -- Fiji Islands - July. Naval forces landed to punish natives for
attacking American exploring and surveying parties.
1841 -- Drummond Island, Kingsmill Group. A naval party landed to avenge the
murder of a seaman by the natives.
1841 -- Samoa - February 24. A naval party landed and burned towns after the
murder of an American seaman on Upolu Island.
1842 -- Mexico. Commodore TA.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long cruising
off California, occupied Monterey, Calif., on October 19, believing war had
come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar incident occurred
a week later at San Diego.
1843 -- China. Sailors and marines from the St. Louis were landed after a
clash between Americans and Chinese at the trading post in Canton.
1843 -- Africa -- November 29 to December 16. Four United States vessels
demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to
discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory coast, and to punish
attacks by the natives on American seamen and shipping.
1844 -- Mexico. President Tyler deployed U.S. forces to protect Texas against
Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of annexation. (Later rejected.)
He defended his action against a Senate resolution of inquiry.
1846-48 -- Mexican War. On May 13,1846, the United States recognized the
existence of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of Texas in
1845, the United States and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and
President Polk said that it was necessary to deploy forces in Mexico to meet a
1849 -- Smyrna. In July a naval force gained release of an American seized by
1851 -- Turkey. After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at Jaffa
in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along
the Turkish (Levant) coast.
1851 -- Johanns Island (east of Africa) -- August. Forces from the U.S. sloop
of war Dale exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an
American whaling brig.
1852-53 -- Argentina -- February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April
1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American
interests during a revolution.
1853 -- Nicaragua -- March 11 to 13. U.S. forces landed to protect American
lives and interests during political disturbances.
1853-54 -- Japan. Commodore Perry and his expedition made a display of force
leading to the "opening of Japan" and the Perry Expedition.
1853-54 -- Ryukyu and Bonin Islands. Commodore Perry on three visits before
going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval
demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from
the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with
the purpose of securing facilities for commerce.
1854 -- China -- April 4 to June 15 to 17. American and English ships landed
forces to protect American interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil
1854 -- Nicaragua -- July 9 to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned San Juan
del Norte (Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American Minister to
1855 -- China -- May 19 to 21. U.S. forces protected American interests in
Shanghai and, from August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Hong Kong.
1855 -- Fiji Islands -- September 12 to November 4. An American naval force
landed to seek reparations for depredations on American residents and seamen.
1855 -- Uruguay -- November 25 to 29. United States and European naval forces
landed to protect American interests during an attempted revolution in
1856 -- Panama, Republic of New Grenada -- September 19 to 22. U.S. forces
landed to protect American interests during an insurrection.
1856 -- China -- October 22 to December 6. U.S. forces landed to protect
American interests at Canton during hostilities between the British and the
Chinese, and to avenge an assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United
1857 -- Nicaragua -- April to May, November to December. In May Commander C.H.
Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of
William Walker, who had been attempting to get control of the country, and
protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting
Walker. In November and December of the same year United States vessels
Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on
Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding's act of landing marines and compelling
the removal of Walker to the United States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary
of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.
1858 -- Uruguay -- January 2 to 27. Forces from two United States warships
landed to protect American property during a revolution in Montevideo.
1858 -- Fiji Islands -- October 6 to 16. A marine expedition chastised natives
for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.
1858-59 -- Turkey. The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force
along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment
elsewhere "to remind the authorities (of Turkey) of the power of the United
1859 -- Paraguay. Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an
attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River during 1855. Apologies were made
after a large display of force.
1859 -- Mexico. Two hundred United States soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in
pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortina.
1859 -- China -- July 31 to August 2. A naval force landed to protect American
interests in Shanghai.
1860 -- Angola, Portuguese West Africa -- March 1. American residents at
Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property
during problems with natives.
1860 -- Colombia, Bay of Panama -- September 27 to October 8. Naval forces
landed to protect American interests during a revolution.
1863 -- Japan -- July 16. The USS Wyoming retaliated against a firing on the
American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.
1864 -- Japan -- July 14 to August 3. Naval forces protected the United States
Minister to Japan when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American
claims against Japan, and to make his negotiations easier by impressing the
Japanese with American power.
1864 -- Japan -- September 4 to 14. Naval forces of the United States, Great
Britain, France, and the Netherlands compelled Japan and the Prince of Nagato
in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign
shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.
1865 -- Panama -- March 9 and 10. U.S. forces protected the lives and property
of American residents during a revolution.
1866 -- Mexico. To protect American residents, General Sedgwick and 100 men in
November obtained surrender of Matamoras. After 3 days he was ordered by U.S.
Government to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President.
1866 -- China. From June 20 to July 7, U.S. forces punished an assault on the
American consul at Newchwang.
1867 -- Nicaragua. Marines occupied Managua and Leon.
1867 -- Formosa -- June 13. A naval force landed and burned a number of huts
to punish the murder of the crew of a wrecked American vessel.
1868 -- Japan (Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Negata) -- February 4 to
8, April 4 to May 12, June 12 and 13. U.S. forces were landed to protect
American interests during the civil war in Japan over the abolition of the
Shogunate and the restoration of the Mikado.
1868 -- Uruguay -- February 7 and 8, 19 to 26. U.S. forces protected foreign
residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.
1868 -- Colombia -- April. U.S. forces protected passengers and treasure in
transit at Aspinwall during the absence of local police or troops on the
occasion of the death of the President of Colombia.
1870 -- Mexico -- June 17 and 18. U.S. forces destroyed the pirate ship
Forward, which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio Tecapan.
1870 -- Hawaiian Islands -- September 21. U.S. forces placed the American flag
at half mast upon the death of Queen Kalama, when the American consul at
Honolulu would not assume responsibility for so doing.
1871 -- Korea -- June 10 to 12. A U.S. naval force attacked and captured five
forts to punish natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for
murdering the crew of the General Sherman and burning the schooner, and for
later firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee
1873 -- Colombia (Bay of Panama) -- May 7 to 22, September 23 to October 9.
U.S. forces protected American interests during hostilities over possession of
the government of the State of Panama.
1873 -- Mexico. United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in
pursuit of cattle and other thieves. There were some reciprocal pursuits by
Mexican troops into border territory. Mexico protested frequently. Notable
cases were at Remolina in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875. Washington
orders often supported these excursions. Agreements between Mexico and the
United States, the first in 1882, finally legitimized such raids. They
continued intermittently, with minor disputes, until 1896.
1874 -- Hawaiian Islands -- February 12 to 20. Detachments from American
vessels were landed to preserve order and protect American lives and interests
during the coronation of a new king.
1876 -- Mexico -- May 18. An American force was landed to police the town of
Matamoras temporarily while it was without other government.
1882 -- Egypt -- July 14 to 18. American forces landed to protect American
interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city
of Alexandria by Arabs.
1885 -- Panama (Colon) -- January 18 and 19. U.S. forces were used to guard
the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of
the company during revolutionary activity. In March, April, and May in the
cities of Colon and Panama, the forces helped reestablish freedom of transit
during revolutionary activity.
1888 -- Korea -- June. A naval force was sent ashore to protect American
residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of
the populace was expected.
1888 -- Haiti -- December 20. A display of force persuaded the Haitian
Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge
of breach of blockade.
1888--89 -- Samoa -- November 14, 1888, to March 20, 1889. U.S. forces were
landed to protect American citizens and the consulate during a native civil
1889 -- Hawaiian Islands -- July 30 and 31. U.S. forces protected American
interests at Honolulu during a revolution.
1890 -- Argentina. A naval party landed to protect U.S. consulate and legation
in Buenos Aires.
1891 -- Haiti. U.S. forces sought to protect American lives and property on
1891 -- Bering Strait -- July 2 to October 5. Naval forces sought to stop seal
1891 -- Chile -- August 28 to 30. U.S. forces protected the American consulate
and the women and children who had taken refuge in it during a revolution in
1893 -- Hawaii -- January 16 to April 1. Marines were landed ostensibly to
protect American lives and property, but many believed actually to promote a
provisional government under Sanford B. Dole. This action was disavowed by the
1894 -- Brazil -- January. A display of naval force sought to protect American
commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war.
1894 -- Nicaragua -- July 6 to August 7. U.S. forces sought to protect
American interests at Bluefields following a revolution.
1894-95 -- China. Marines were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking
for protection purposes during the Sino--Japanese War.
1894-95 -- China. A naval vessel was beached and used as a fort at Newchwang
for protection of American nationals.
1894-96 -- Korea -- July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896. A guard of marines was
sent to protect the American legation and American lives and interests at
Seoul during and following the Sino-- Japanese War.
1895 -- Colombia -- March 8 to 9. U.S. forces protected American interests
during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.
1896 -- Nicaragua -- May 2 to 4. U.S. forces protected American interests in
Corinto during political unrest.
1898 -- Nicaragua -- February 7 and 8. U.S. forces protected American lives
and property at San Juan del Sur.
1898 -- The Spanish--American War. On April 25, 1898, the United States
declared war with Spain. The war followed a Cuban insurrection against Spanish
rule and the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in the harbor at Havana.
1898--99 -- China -- November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899. U.S. forces provided
a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during
contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.
1899 -- Nicaragua. American and British naval forces were landed to protect
national interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at
Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan
1899 -- Samoa -- February-May 15. American and British naval forces were
landed to protect national interests and to take part in a bloody contention
over the succession to the throne.
1899--1901 -- Philippine Islands. U.S. forces protected American interests
following the war with Spain and conquered the islands by defeating the
Filipinos in their war for independence.
1900 -- China -- May 24 to September 28. American troops participated in
operations to protect foreign lives during the Boxer rising, particularly at
Peking. For many years after this experience a permanent legation guard was
maintained in Peking, and was strengthened at times as trouble threatened.
1901 -- Colombia (State of Panama) -- November 20 to December 4. U.S. forces
protected American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during
serious revolutionary disturbances.
1902 -- Colombia -- April 16 to 23. U.S. forces protected American lives and
property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.
1902 -- Colombia (State of Panama) -- September 17 to November 18. The United
States placed armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the
railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the
landing of Colombian troops.
1903 -- Honduras -- March 23 to 30 or 31. U.S. forces protected the American
consulate and the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortez during a period of
1903 -- Dominican Republic -- March 30 to April 21. A detachment of marines
was landed to protect American interests in the city of Santo Domingo during a
1903 -- Syria -- September 7 to 12. U.S. forces protected the American
consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising was feared.
1903-04 -- Abyssinia. Twenty-five marines were sent to Abyssinia to protect
the U.S. Consul General while he negotiated a treaty.
1903-14 -- Panama. U.S. forces sought to protect American interests and lives
during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over
construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief intermissions, United States
Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903, to January 21
1914 to guard American interests.
1904 -- Dominican Republic -- January 2 to February 11. American and British
naval forces established an area in which no fighting would be allowed and
protected American interests in Puerto Plata and Sosua and Santo Domingo City
during revolutionary fighting.
1904 -- Tangier, Morocco. "We want either Perdicaris alive or Raisula dead." A
squadron demonstrated to force release of a kidnapped American. Marine guard
was landed to protect the consul general.
1904 -- Panama -- November 17 to 24. U.S. forces protected American lives and
property at Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.
1904-05 -- Korea -- January 5, 1904, to November 11, 1905. A Marine guard was
sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War.
1906-09 -- Cuba -- September 1906 to January 23, 1909. U.S. forces sought to
restore order, protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after
serious revolutionary activity.
1907 -- Honduras -- March 18 to June 8. To protect American interests during a
war between Honduras and Nicaragua, troops were stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba,
Puerto Cortez, San Pedro Laguna and Choloma.
1910 -- Nicaragua -- May 19 to September 4. U.S. forces protected American
interests at Bluefields.
1911 -- Honduras -- January 26. American naval detachments were landed to
protect American lives and interests during a civil war in Honduras.
1911 -- China. As the nationalist revolution approached, in October an ensign
and 10 men tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being
warned away and a small landing force guarded American private property and
consulate at Hankow. A marine guard was established in November over the cable
stations at Shanghai; landing forces were sent for protection in Nanking,
Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.
1912 -- Honduras. A small force landed to prevent seizure by the government of
an American-owned railroad at Puerto Cortez. The forces were withdrawn after
the United States disapproved the action.
1912 -- Panama. Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised
elections outside the Canal Zone.
1912 -- Cuba -- June 5 to August 5. U.S. forces protected American interests
on the Province of Oriente, and in Havana.
1912 -- China -- August 24 to 26, on Kentucky Island, and August 26 to 30 at
Camp Nicholson. U.S. forces protect Americans and American interests during
1912 -- Turkey -- November 18 to December 3. U.S. forces guarded the American
legation at Constantinople during a Balkan War.
1912-25 -- Nicaragua -- August to November 1912. U.S. forces protected
American interests during an attempted revolution. A small force, serving as a
legation guard and seeking to promote peace and stability, remained until
August 5, 1925.
1912-41 -- China. The disorders which began with the Kuomintang rebellion in
1912, which were redirected by the invasion of China by Japan and finally
ended by war between Japan and the United States in 1941, led to
demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of U.S. interests in
China continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at
Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941. In 1927, the
United States had 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels in its
waters. In 1933 the United States had 3,027 armed men ashore. The protective
action was generally based on treaties with China concluded from 1858 to 1901.
1913 -- Mexico -- September 5 to 7. A few marines landed at Ciaris Estero to
aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the Yaqui Valley, made
dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.
1914 -- Haiti -- January 29 to February 9, February 20 to 21, October 19.
Intermittently U.S. naval forces protected American nationals in a time of
rioting and revolution.
1914 -- Dominican Republic -- June and July. During a revolutionary movement,
United States naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata,
and by threat of force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.
1914-17 -- Mexico. Undeclared Mexican--American hostilities followed the
Dolphin affair and Villa's raids and included capture of Vera Cruz and later
Pershing's expedition into northern Mexico.
1915-34 -- Haiti -- July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934. U.S. forces maintained
order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection.
1916 -- China. American forces landed to quell a riot taking place on American
property in Nanking.
1916-24 -- Dominican Republic -- May 1916 to September 1924. American naval
forces maintained order during a period of chronic and threatened
1917 -- China. American troops were landed at Chungking to protect American
lives during a political crisis.
1917-18 -- World War I. On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war with
Germany and on December 7,1917, with Austria-Hungary. Entrance of the United
States into the war was precipitated by Germany's submarine warfare against
1917-22 -- Cuba. U.S. forces protected American interests during insurrection
and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the Uni States armed forces left
Cuba by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February
1918-19 -- Mexico. After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, U.S. troops
entered Mexico in pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and s times
in 1919. In August 1918 American and Mexican troops fought at Nogales.
1918-20 -- Panama. U.S. forces were used for police duty according to treaty
stipulations, at Chiriqui, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest.
1918-20 Soviet Russia. Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and
July to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting
between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia
from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency government and
neutrality was issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech
commanders in July. In August 7,000 men were landed in Vladivostok and
remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupation force. In
September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied intervention force at
Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in response to
the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or
1919 -- Dalmatia. U.S. forces were landed at Trau at the request of Italian
authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.
1919 -- Turkey. Marines from the USS Arizona were landed to guard the U.S.
Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.
1919 -- Honduras -- September 8 to 12. A landing force was sent ashore to
maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.
1920 -- China -- March 14. A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to
protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.
1920 -- Guatemala -- April 9 to 27. U.S. forces protected the American
Legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a
period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.
1920-22 -- Russia (Siberia) -- February 16, 1920, to November 19, 1922. A
Marine guard was sent to protect the United States radio station and property
on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.
1921 -- Panama -- Costa Rica. American naval squadrons demonstrated in April
on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a
1922 -- Turkey -- September and October. A landing force was sent ashore with
consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities, to protect American lives and
property when the Turkish Nationalists entered Smyrna.
1922-23 -- China. Between April 1922 and November 1923 marines were landed
five times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.
1924 -- Honduras -- February 28 to March 31, September 10 to 15. U.S. forces
protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.
1924 -- China -- September. Marines were landed to protect Americans and other
foreigners in Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities.
1925 -- China -- January 15 to August 29. Fighting of Chinese factions
accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghai brought the landing of
American forces to protect lives and property in the International Settlement.
1925 -- Honduras -- April 19 to 21. U.S. forces protected foreigners at La
Ceiba during a political upheaval.
1925 -- Panama -- October 12 to 23. Strikes and rent riots led to the landing
of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests.
1926 -- China -- August and September. The Nationalist attack on Han brought
the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small
guard was maintained at the consulate general even after September 16, when
the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nation forces captured
Kiukiang, naval forces were landed for the protection of foreigners November 4
1926-33 -- Nicaragua -- May 7 to June 5, 1926; August 27, 1926, to January
1933. The coup d'etat of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities
leading to the landing of American marines to protect the interests of United
States. United States forces came and went intermittently until January 3,
1933. Their work included activity against the outlaw leader
Sandino in 1928.
1927 -- China -- February. Fighting at Shanghai caused American naval forces
and marines to be increased. In March a naval guard was stationed at American
consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and
British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other
foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of marines and naval
forces were stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin.
1932 -- China. American forces were landed to protect American interests
during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.
1933 -- Cuba. During a revolution against President Gerardo Machada naval
forces demonstrated but no landing was made.
1934 -- China. Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American Consulate.
1940 -- Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, - Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua,
Trinidad, and British Guiana. Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases
obtained by negotiation with Great Britain. These were sometimes called
1941 -- Greenland. Greenland was taken under protection of the United States
1941 -- Netherlands (Dutch Guiana). In November the President ordered American
troops to occupy Dutch Guiana, but by agreement with the Netherlands
government in exile, Brazil cooperated to protect aluminum ore supply from the
bauxite mines in Surinam.
1941 -- Iceland. Iceland was taken under the protection of the United States
1941 -- Germany. Sometime in the spring the President ordered the Navy to
patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July U.S. warships were conveying and
September were attacking German submarines. In November, the Neutrality Act
was partially repealed to protect U.S. military aid to Britain.1941-45 --
World War II. On December 8, 1941, the United States declared war with Japan,
on December 11 with Germany and Italy, and on June 5, 1942, with Bulgaria,
Hungary and Romania. The United States declared war against Japan after the
surprise bombing of Pearl Harbor, and against Germany and Italy after those
nations, under the dictators Hitler and Mussolini, declared war against the
1945 -- China. In October 50,000 U.S. Marines were sent to North China to
assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating the
Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This was
in addition to approximately 60,000 U.S. forces remaining in China at the end
of World War II.
1946 -- Trieste. President Truman ordered the augmentation of U.S. troops
along the zonal occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces in
northern Italy after Yugoslav forces shot down an unarmed U.S. Army transport
plane flying over Venezia Giulia. Earlier U.S. naval units had been dispatched
to the scene.
1948 -- Palestine. A marine consular guard was sent to Jerusalem to protect
the U.S. Consul General.
1948 -- Berlin. After the Soviet Union established a land blockade of the
U.S., British, and French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the United
States and its allies airlifted supplies to Berlin until after the blockade
was lifted in May 1949.
1948-49 -- China. Marines were dispatched to Nanking to protect the American
Embassy when the city fell to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to aid in the
protection and evacuation of Americans.
1950-53 -- Korean War. The United States responded to North Korean invasion of
South Korea by going to its assistance, pursuant to United Nations Security
1950-55 -- Formosa (Taiwan). In June 1950 at the beginning of the Korean War,
President Truman ordered the U.S. Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist
attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland
1954-55 -- China. Naval units evacuated U.S. civilians and military personnel
from the Tachen Islands.
1956 -- Egypt. A Marine battalion evacuated U.S. nationals and other persons
from Alexandria during the Suez crisis.
1958 -- Lebanon. Marines were landed in Lebanon at the invitation of its
government to help protect against threatened insurrection supported from the
1959-60 -- The Caribbean. 2d Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect
U.S. nationals during the Cuban crisis.
1962 -- Cuba. President Kennedy instituted a "quarantine" on the shipment of
offensive missiles to Cuba from the Soviet Union. He also warned Soviet Union
that the launching of any missile from Cuba against nations in the Western
Hemisphere would bring about U.S. nuclear retaliation on the Soviet Union. A
negotiated settlement was achieved in a few days.
1962 -- Thailand. The 3d Marine Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962 to
support that country during the threat of Communist pressure from outside; by
Jul 30 the 5000 marines had been withdrawn.
1962-75 -- Laos. From October 1962 until 1976, the United States played a role
of military support in Laos.
1964 -- Congo. The United States sent four transport planes to provide airlift
for Congolese troops during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers
to rescue foreigners.
1964-73 -- Vietnam War. U.S. military advisers had been in South Vietnam a
decade, and their numbers had been increased as the military position the
Saigon government became weaker. After the attacks on U.S. destroyers in the
Tonkin Gulf, President Johnson asked for a resolution expressing U.S.
determination to support freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia. Congress
responded with the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, expressing support for "all
necessary measures" the President might take to repel armed attacks against
U.S. forces and prevent further aggression. Following this resolution, and
following a Communist attack on a U.S. installation in central Vietnam, the
United States escalated its participation in the war to a peak of 543 000 in
1965 -- Dominican Republic. The United States intervened to protect lives and
property during a Dominican revolt and sent more troops as fears grew that the
revolutionary forces were coming increasingly under Communist control.
1967 -- Congo. The United States sent three military transport aircraft with
crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a
1970 -- Cambodia. U.S. troops were ordered into Cambodia to clean out
Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese attacked U.S
and South Vietnamese forces in Vietnam. The object of this attack, which
lasted from April 30 to June 30, was to ensure the continuing safe withdrawal
of American forces from South Vietnam and to assist the program of
1974 -- Evacuation from Cyprus. United States naval forces evacuated U.S.
civilians during hostilities between Turkish and Greek Cypriot forces.
1975 -- Evacuation from Vietnam. On April 3, 1975, President Ford reported
U.S. naval vessels, helicopters, and Marines had been sent to assist in
evacuation of refugees and U.S. nationals from Vietnam. (Note 3)
1975 -- Evacuation from Cambodia. On April 12, 1975, President Ford reported
that he had ordered U.S. military forces to proceed with the planned
evacuation of U.S. citizens from Cambodia.
1975 -- South Vietnam. On April 30 1975, President Ford reported that a force
of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 Marines had evacuated about 1,400 U.S.
citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from landing
zones near the U.S. Embassy in Saigon and the Tan Son Nhut Airfield.
1975 -- Mayaguez incident. On May 15, 1975, President Ford reported he had
ordered military forces to retake the SS Mayaguez, a merchant vessel en route
from Hong Kong to Thailand with U.S. citizen crew which was seized from
Cambodian naval patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to
a nearby island.
1976 -- Lebanon. On July 22 and 23, 1974, helicopters from five U.S. naval
vessels evacuated approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon
during fighting between Lebanese factions after an overland convoy evacuation
had been blocked by hostilities.
1976 -- Korea. Additional forces were sent to Korea after two American
military personnel were killed while in the demilitarized zone between North
and South Korea for the purpose of cutting down a tree.
1978 -- Zaire. From May 19 through June 1978, the United States utilized
military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and
French rescue operations in Zaire.
1980 -- Iran. On April 26, 1980, President Carter reported the use of six U.S.
transport planes and eight helicopters in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue
American hostages being held in Iran.
1981 -- El Salvador. After a guerilla offensive against the government of El
Salvador, additional U.S. military advisers were sent to El Salvador, bringing
the total to approximately 55, to assist in training government forces in
1981 --Libya. On August 19, 1981, U.S. planes based on the carrier Nimitz shot
down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the Libyan jets had
fired a heat-seeking missile. The United States periodically held freedom of
navigation exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial
waters but considered international waters by the United States.
1982 -- Sinai. On March 19, 1982, President Reagan reported the deployment of
military personnel and equipment to participate in the Multinational Force and
Observers in the Sinai. Participation had been authorized by the Multinational
Force and Observers Resolution, Public Law 97-132.
1982 -- Lebanon. On August 21, 1982, President Reagan reported the dispatch of
80 marines to serve in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of
members of the Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. The Marines left Sept.
1982 -- Lebanon. On September 29, 1982, President Reagan reported the
deployment of 1200 marines to serve in a temporary multinational force to
facilitate the restoration of Lebanese government sovereignty. On Sept. 29,
1983, Congress passed the Multinational Force in Lebanon Resolution (P.L.
98-119) authorizing the continued participation for eighteen months.
1983 -- Egypt. After a Libyan plane bombed a city in Sudan on March 18, 1983,
and Sudan and Egypt appealed for assistance, the United States dispatched an
AWACS electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.
1983-89 -- Honduras. In July 1983 the United States undertook a series of
exercises in Honduras that some believed might lead to conflict with
Nicaragua. On March 25, 1986, unarmed U.S. military helicopters and crewmen
ferried Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel Nicaraguan troops.
1983 -- Chad. On August 8, 1983, President Reagan reported the deployment of
two AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and
ground logistical support forces to assist Chad against Libyan and rebel
1983 -- Grenada. On October 25, 1983, President Reagan reported a landing on
Grenada by Marines and Army airborne troops to protect lives and assist in the
restoration of law and order and at the request of five members of the
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States.
1984 -- Persian Gulf. On June 5, 1984, Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided
by intelligence from a U.S. AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled
by a U.S. KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian fighter planes over an area of
the Persian Gulf proclaimed as a protected zone for shipping.
1985 -- Italy . On October 10, 1985, U.S. Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian
airliner and forced it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the
hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro who had killed an American
citizen during the hijacking.
1986 --Libya. On March 26, 1986, President Reagan reported to Congress that,
on March 24 and 25, U.S. forces, while engaged in freedom of navigation
exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, had been attacked by Libyan missiles and
the United States had responded with missiles.
1986 -- Libya. On April 16, 1986, President Reagan reported that U.S. air and
naval forces had conducted bombing strikes on terrorist facilities and
military installations in Libya.
1986 -- Bolivia. U.S. Army personnel and aircraft assisted Bolivia in
1987-88 -- Persian Gulf. After the Iran-Iraq War resulted in several military
incidents in the Persian Gulf, the United States increased U.S. Navy forces
operating in the Persian Gulf and adopted a policy of reflagging and escorting
Kuwaiti oil tankers through the Gulf. President Reagan reported that U.S.
ships had been fired upon or struck mines or taken other military action on
September 23, October 10, and October 20, 1987 and April 19, July 4, and July
14, 1988. The United States gradually reduced its forces after a cease-fire
between Iran and Iraq on August 20, 1988.
1988 -- Panama. In mid-March and April 1988, during a period of instability in
Panama and as pressure grew for Panamanian military leader General Manuel
Noriega to resign, the United States sent 1,000 troops to Panama, to "further
safeguard the canal, U.S. lives, property and interests in the area." The
forces supplemented 10,000 U.S. military personnel already in Panama.
1989 -- Libya. On January 4, 1989, two U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft based on USS
John F. Kennedy shot down two Libyan jet fighters over the Mediterranean Sea
about 70 miles north of Libya. The U.S. pilots said the Libyan planes had
demonstrated hostile intentions.
1989 -- Panama. On May 11, 1989, in response to General Noriega's disregard of
the results of the Panamanian election, President Bush ordered a brigade-
sized force of approximately 1,900 troops to augment the estimated 11,000 U.S.
forces already in the area.
1989 -- Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. On September 15, 1989, President
Bush announced that military and law enforcement assistance would be sent to
help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru combat illicit drug
producers and traffickers. By mid-September there were 50- 100 U.S. military
advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the use of
military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2-12 persons to train
troops in the three countries.
1989 -- Philippines. On December 2, 1989, President Bush reported that on
December 1 U.S. fighter planes from Clark Air Base in the Philippines had
assisted the Aquino government to repel a coup attempt. In addition, 100
marines were sent from the U.S. Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the U.S.
Embassy in Manila.
1989 -- Panama. On December 21, 1989, President Bush reported that he had
ordered U.S. military forces to Panama to protect the lives of American
citizens and bring General Noriega to justice. By February 13, 1990, all the
invasion forces had been withdrawn.
1990 -- Liberia. On August 6, 1990, President Bush reported that a reinforced
rifle company had been sent to provide additional security to the U.S. Embassy
in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated U.S. citizens from
1990 -- Saudi Arabia. On August 9, 1990, President Bush reported that he had
ordered the forward deployment of substantial elements of the U.S. armed
forces into the Persian Gulf region to help defend Saudi Arabia after the
August 2 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. On November 16, 1990, he reported the
continued buildup of the forces to ensure an adequate offensive military
1991 -- Iraq. On January 18, 1991, President Bush reported that he had
directed U.S. armed forces to commence combat operations on January 16 against
Iraqi forces and military targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in conjunction with a
coalition of allies and U.N. Security Council resolutions. On January 12
Congress had passed the Authorization for Use of Military Force against Iraq
Resolution (P.L. 102-1). Combat operations were suspended on February 28,
1991 -- Iraq. On May 17, 1991, President Bush stated in a status report to
Congress that the Iraqi repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a
limited introduction of U.S. forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief
1991 -- Zaire. On September 25-27, 1991, after widespread looting and rioting
broke out in Kinshasa, U.S. Air Force C-141s transported 100 Belgian troops
and equipment into Mnshasa. U.S. planes also carried 300 French troops into
the Central African Republic and hauled back American citizens and third
country nationals from locations outside Zaire.
1992 -- Sierra Leone. On May 3, 1992, U.S. military planes evacuated Americans
from Sierra Leone, where military leaders had overthrown the government.
1992 -- Kuwait. On August 3, 1992, the United States began a series of
military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new
border drawn up by the United Nations and refusal to cooperate with U.N.
1992 -- Iraq. On September 16, 1992 President Bush stated in a status report
that he had ordered U.S. participation in the enforcement of a prohibition
against Iraqi flights in a specified zone in southern Iraq, and aerial
reconnaissance to monitor Iraqi compliance with the cease-fire resolution.
1992 -- Somalia. On December 10, 1992, President Bush reported that he had
deployed U.S. armed forces to Somalia in response to a humanitarian crisis and
a U.N. Security Council Resolution determining that the situation constituted
a threat to international peace. This operation, called Operation Restore
Hope, was part of a U.S.-led United Nations Unified Task Force (UNITAF) and
came to an end on May 4, 1993. U.S. forces continued to participate in the
successor United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II), which the U.N.
Security Council authorized to assist Somalia in political reconciliation and
restoration of peace.
1993 -- Iraq. On January 19, 1993, President Bush said in a status report that
on December 27, 1992, U.S. aircraft shot down an Iraqi aircraft in the
prohibited zone; on January 13 aircraft from the United States and coalition
partners had attacked missile bases in southern Iraq; and further military
actions had occured on January 17 and 18. Administration officials said the
United States was deploying a battalion task force to Kuwait to underline the
continuing U.S. commitment to Kuwaiti independence.
1993 -- Iraq. On January 21, 1993, shortly after his inauguration, President
Clinton said the United States would continue the Bush policy on Iraq, and
U.S. aircraft fired at targets in Iraq after pilots sensed Iraqi radar or
anti-aircraft fire directed at them.
1993 -- Bosnia-Hercegovina. On February 28, 1993, the United States bagan an
airdrop of relief supplies aimed at Muslims surrounded by Serbian forces in
1993 -- Bosnia-Hercegovina. On April 13, 1993, President Clinton reported U.S.
forces were participating in a NATO air action to enforce a U.N. ban on all
unauthorized military flights over Bosnia-Hercegovina.
1993 -- Iraq. In a status report on Iraq of May 24, President Clinton said
that on April 9 and April 18 U.S. warplanes had bombed or fired missiles at
Iraqi anti-aircraft sites which had tracked U.S. aricraft.
1993 -- Somalia. On June 10, 1993, President Clinton reported that in response
to attacks against U.N. forces in Somalia by a factional leader, the U.S.
Quick Reaction Force in the area had participated in military action to quell
the violence. The quick reaction force was part of the U.S. contribution to a
success On July 1, President Clinton reported further air and ground military
operations on June 12 and June 17 aimed at neutralizing military capabilities
that had impeded U.N. efforts to deliver humanitarian relief and promote
national reconstruction, and additional instances occurred in the following
1993 -- Iraq. On June 28, 1993, President Clinton reported that on June 26
U.S. naval forces had launched missiles against the Iraqi Intelligence
Service's headquarters in Baghdad in response to an unsuccessful attempt to
assassinate former President Bush in Kuwait in April 1993.
1993 -- Iraq. In a status report of July 22, 1993, President Clinton said on
June 19 a U.S. aircraft had fired a missile at an Iraqi anti-aircraft site
displaying hostile intent. U.S. planes also bombed an Iraqi missile battery on
August 19, 1993.
1993 -- Macedonia. On July 9, 1993, President Clinton reported the deployment
of 350 U.S. armed forces to Macedonia to participate in the U.N. Protection
Force to help maintain stability in the area of former Yugoslavia.
(Note 1.) This list through 1975 is reprinted with few changes from: U.S.
Congress. House. Committee on International Relations [now Foreign Affairs].
Subcommittee on International Security and Scientific Affairs. Background
Information on the Use of U.S. Armed Forces in Foreign Countries, 1975
Revision. Committee print, 94th Congress, Ist session. Prepared by the Foreign
Affairs Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. 84 p.
(Note 2.) Other lists include: Goldwater, Senator Barry. War Without
Declaration. A Chronological List of 199 U.S. Military Hostilities Abroad
Without a Declaration of War. 1798-1972. Congressional Record, V. 119, July
20, 1973: S14174-14183; U.S. Department of State. Armed Actions Taken by the
United States Without a Declaration of War, 1789-1967. Research Project 806A.
Historical Studies Division. Bureau of Public Affairs; Collins, John M.
America's Small Wars. New York, Brassey's, 1990; For a discussion of the
evolution of lists of military actions and legal authorization for various
actions, see Wormuth, Francis D. and Edwin B. Firmage, To Chain the Dog of
War; the War Power of Congress in History and Law. Dallas, Southern Methodist
University Press, 1986. p. 133-149.
(Note 3.) This and subsequent mentions of Presidential reports refer to
reports the President has submitted to Congress that might be considered
pursuant to the War Powers Resolution (Public Law 91-148, November 7, 1973).
For a discussion of the War Powers Resolution and various types of reports
required under it, see The War Powers Resolution: Eighteen Years of
Experience, CRS Report 92- 133 F; or The War Powers Resolution: Presidential
Compliance, CRS Issue Brief IB81050, updated regularly.
Gunny G's Marines
GLOBE and ANCHOR Sites & Forums
By R.W. "Dick" Gaines
GySgt USMC (Ret.)